Application of wave optics

31.10.2021 12:06

Application of wave optics:

Optical microscopy:

In optical microscopy, the light ray after reflecting from the object tends to pass through the lenses of the microscope which eventually magnifies the light. The resultant image which is very much magnified in comparison to the original size of the object is then seen by the observer’s eye. For different applicatinos in wave opitcs, custom lenses are manfactured through precision optics manufacturing and optical prism manufacturing. Although this type of microscope has many restrictions and limitations, there are many techniques that utilize the properties of optics and light in order to enhance the magnified image.

  • Oblique imagination: This technique illuminates the object from the side, giving it a three-dimensional appearance and highlighting features that would not otherwise be visible.
  • Dispersion Staining: This creates a colored image of an object which is colorless, it does not require that the object should be stained.
  • Brirhgt field: This technique is used to increase the contrast by illuminating the surface where the object is being placed from below.
  • Darkfield: This is a very good technique to improve the contrast of transparent objects. A carefully aligned light source reduces non-scattered light entering the plane of the object and therefore collects only the light that is scattered by the object itself.
  • Phase contrast: This uses the index of refraction of an object in order to show the differences in optical density in the way by showing it as a difference.

Electron Microscopy:

Electron microscope makes use of electron beams in order to achieve higher resolutions in comparison to those in optical microscopy. Electron microscopes are of two types:

  • Transmission electron microscope (TEM): The TEM emits an electron beam that passes through a thin slice of a specimen. The electron then interacts with the specimen and then it is transmitted onto photographic paper or a screen. Since the electron beam has a much shorter wavelength than conventional light, the resolution of the resulting image is very high.
  • Scanning electron microscope (SEM): The SEM displays every minute detail on the surface of the specimen and then it produces a 3-d view by scanning the specimen and then it is shown in the form of an SEM image of pollen.

Twisted Nematic Devices:

The twisted nematic device is one of the most common applications of LCD. When an electric field is applied, the crystals in the center layer are twisted, and light is completely blocked from passing through and those pixels will appear black.

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